When a severe twisting of the knee occurs, one or both of these ligaments (ACL and PCL) may become stretched, or even torn. This twisting of the knee may be related to a contact injury (such as might occur in football), or even a non-contact injury. Some patients report of hearing a “pop” or “snap” when the injury occurred. Following the injury, the injured knee joint may swell and feel like it may “give way” when weight is applied.
A tear in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common knee injuries that may occur to a recreational, amateur, or professional athlete. This injury may result from twisting the knee too far in one direction, or by a sudden and forceful change in direction as may occur during football, soccer, skiing, basketball, racquetball, or tennis. Frequently, the injury occurs in those sports that require the foot to be planted in one spot, and the body to suddenly change direction or make a lateral movement.
This anterior cruciate ligament is a thick fibrous band that connects the femur (the thigh bone) with the tibia (shin bone). If the ACL is completely torn, the knee becomes unstable. Because long-term instability may lead to early arthritis of the knee, a proper diagnosis is necessary to obtain the best possible outcome. By recognizing the instability and reconstructing the ACL, the chance of degenerative changes in the joint are reduced. A small percentage of people may be able to function with a torn ACL; however, this usually requires modification of activity.
Reconstruction of the knee joint following complete ACL rupturing, may require surgery to replace the stabilizing effect of the original ACL.
The cartilage that cushions the shoulder socket is also known as the labrum. This tissue can tear from compression, twisting and often overuse injuries of the shoulder. Small tear can be debrided away similar to a knee arthroscopy, however larger tears need to be anchored back to the glenoid to assure proper attachment and full function.
Click to see video illustration of this procedure